A solar inverter is a unit that converts the uneven direct current (DC) of a solar module into alternating current (AC). The output current use in a wide variety of applications, including executable networks and off-network. A solar inverter is a most important part of the solar power system.
In a photovoltaic system, this is a dangerous BOS (system balance) component and you can use a normal AC power source. These inverters share some of the characteristics of a photovoltaic array, such as: B. Peak Performance Tracking and Island Protection. The selection and installation of the inverter is very important when using solar system at home.
Working of Solar Inverter
The working principle of a solar inverter is to draw energy from a direct current source, such as e.g., a solar panel to use to convert it into alternating current. This conversion process can be done with a set of IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors). When these semiconductor devices are connected in an H-bridge, they range from a DC power source to an AC power source.
The alternating current is picked up via a step-up transformer and fed into the grid. Some designers have started developing transformer less inverters. This is more efficient than a transformer inverter.
Every solar inverter system uses a preprogrammed microcontroller to precisely execute a variety of algorithms. The controller uses the MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm to increase the output power of the solar module.
Types of Solar Inverters
1) String Inverter
These solar modules are placed in strings, with many strings connected to a single string inverter. Each string contains a source of direct current that is converted to alternating current and used as electricity. Depending on the size of the system, there are several string inverters, each of which draws direct current from several strings. These inverters are suitable for panels that are placed on a single level to avoid mounting in different directions.
The string inverter is a module-level power electronics device that is installed at the module level and can also be used with a power optimizer. Therefore, there is one for every solar panel. Solar panel manufacturers use energy optimizers on their devices and sell them as a solution called Smart Modules that simplify installation.
Power optimizers have many of the same benefits as microinverters, but are cheaper. So, if you are using an inverter (such as a strict chain or microinverter) this can be a good choice.
2) Central Inverters
These refer to string inverters but are larger and support additional strings for solar panels. Instead of opening the strings to the inverter, the strings are connected to one another in a universal combination box so that direct current can flow to an intermediate inverter, which is then converted into alternating current. These inverters do not require component interconnection, but do require combined pads and boxes as they are suitable for large installations that are reliably established across the array.
These solar inverters are ideal for commercial and private use. Like the power optimizer, it is also an electronic device at the module level, as an inverter is mounted on each panel. Microinverters convert direct current into alternating current at the control cabinet, making string inverters superfluous.
Even if the panel-level conversion affects panel performance, the rest of the panel will not be displayed. These inverters monitor the function of each solar module and the string inverters explain how each string works so that the inverters are installed correctly. These inverters have many advantages as each solar panel can be optimized individually. Transmits more energy, especially in imperfect shadowy situations.
4) Battery based Inverter
The growth of battery-based inverters is increasing. These are unidirectional and include an inverter and a battery charger. This process can be carried out with the help of batteries. According to UL design and classification, these inverters are off-grid, grid-connected, and off-grid inverters. The main advantage of this is that, depending on the state of the network, it can provide uninterrupted behavior at critical loads. In any case, these inverters process the energy between the grid and matrix during the charging process of the battery, monitor the state of the battery and control its charging process.